Deby’s Burial: History of Massacres from 1991-2003
Coming to power on December 1, 1990 thanks to Franco-Libyan support, Colonel Idriss Deby had every chance to build a truly democratic state, stable especially as his speech delivered three days later, had assured all Chadians exhausted by thirty years of ‘an endless internal quarrel. In his speech, President Idriss Déby declares to the nation: “ I have brought you neither gold nor silver, but freedom. ”
Chadians applauded this new policy advocated by Idriss Déby. But to everyone’s surprise, the new regime will display before everyone its true nature and the objectives of the new masters of the country who will have only contempt and arrogance for the rest of Chadians. The country will very quickly sink into violence, terror and fear.
– On October 13, 1991, the government forces confront the supporters of Maldoum Bada Abbas, Minister of the Interior and vice-president of Idriss Déby’s MPS, accused by the Zaghawa authorities of wanting to instigate a coup d’état. 63 officers, all of Hadjaraï ethnicity, were arrested and coldly executed. We can cite Ibrahim Elias, Chief of Staff of the 2nd Deputy Army.
Colonels Kaffine Chadallah and Garboubou retreat to their stronghold of Guéra where they will be hunted down by Deby’s men who will commit terrible abuses among the civilian population.
– In December 1991, the MDD (Movement for Democracy and Development) forces led by Goukouni Guet launched an offensive.
– January 1992, Mamadou Bissau, former minister and several times ambassadors, member of the RDP, was shot dead by the presidential guard of Idriss Deby at his home in front of his family and his body taken away. Adoum Tchéré (former minister), Mouli Seid (ambassador), Bidjéré (Director of the treasury) were arrested and tortured by Deby’s forces.
– February 1992: Me Joseph Behidi, vice-president of the Chadian human rights league, was shot dead by Idriss Deby’s men in front of his home. Me Behidi left a file containing a list of names of more than 800 people killed by the famous uncontrolled gang led by Kerim Nassour, cousin of Idriss Deby.
– On February 18, 1992, Nigeria arrested and extradited 278 Chadian opponents to Chad. Many of them were MDD. Among those extradited were: Goukouni Guet (ex CEMGA), Ahmat Sakhaïr (Cmdt BSIR), Ahmat Hadad Abakar, Oumar Taher (Director), Mahamat Boukhary (Secretary of State at the Min. Foreign Aff.) And Issa Mahamat Goran,… etc. Some were killed according to Amnesty International (Chad / the nightmare continues. Amnesty International).
– On February 27, 1992, Lieutenant Moïse Keté, fellow combatant and member of the MPS, took up arms against the power of Idriss Deby. Following the massacres of deflated soldiers, mainly from the South, and cantonized in Guelendeng who demanded their demobilization bonus, the presidential guard came into action. Result: 300 dead . Kété and Laokin Bardé will be trapped during negotiations with the government, arrested and shot by Deby’s men.
– June 18, 1992, a company of the qualified army close to Abbas Koty was decimated in Moussoro. Commander Abakar Adjar was buried alive according to witnesses.
– February 1993, following the men of Kété and Laokin Bardé, Deby’s army massacres the populations of Goré (Eastern Logone). A commission of inquiry estimated the number of victims at 247 dead and dozens injured and missing. Even though the Sovereign National Conference (CNS) opened on January 15, 1993 in N’djamena brought together Chadians to discuss the country’s problems and especially peace.
– In April 1993, 203 people killed by the presidential guard in Kouhou Goré.
– In June 1993, assassination in N’djaména of Mr. M’bailao Mianbé, Director of the Permanent Secretariat for the Reintegration of deflated soldiers. An annoying witness in the Guélendeng massacre and also in the embezzlement of funds mobilized for the restructuring of the army.
– On August 4, 1993, soldiers shot at peaceful citizens at the Gninguilim and Chokoyane market in the east of the country (Ouaddaï) killing more than 82 people .
– On August 6, 1993, the inhabitants of the town of Abeché expressed their anger against the massacre of N’gniguilim and Chokoyane, two dead and several wounded. In N’djamena, the nationals of Ouaddaï are preparing to express their dissatisfaction when the presidential guard opens fire leaving more than 160 dead , witnesses saw the wounded unloaded from the ambulances and finished off by the elements of the presidential guard.
– On October 22, 1993, a few days after his return to N’djamena following Sudano-Libyan mediation, Colonel Abbas Koty Yacoub, president of the CNR (National Recovery Council) was shot dead by the presidential guard of Idriss Deby.
– On January 24, 1994, Commander Ibrahim Zahab Libiss, Chief of Staff and founder of the FNT was taken prisoner by government forces and summarily executed.
– On May 1, 1994, the government banned Labor Day demonstrations and the military occupied the headquarters of unions, universities and schools. The police fired on the crowd, Brahim Selgué was killed on the spot while several dozen wounded were recorded.
– On June 1, 1995, the N’djamena Hebdo newspaper was ransacked, the Director of the publication and his journalists beaten.
– April, July and October 1995, around forty people were arrested in the south of the country and transported to N’djamena, suspected of sympathy with the FARF (armed forces for the Federal Republic) of Laoken Bardé.
– In August 1995, several deaths in detention in the villages of Kou douhou, Beissa.
– In June 1996: presidential elections largely rigged, Idriss Deby ranked 4th informs the Elysee of his victory in the first round. France demands a second round that Deby “wins” against Kamoungué. The unfortunate candidates demonstrate, they are arrested and severely beaten up.
– August 16, 1996, assassination of Bichara Digui Arou in N’djamena. Annour Idriss Haggar (Laboratory assistant), Abakar Idriss Haggar (DG Ecole Normale Supérieure), Bakhit Mahamat Haggar, Hamit abderahman Haggar (head of the expanded vaccination program “EPI”) and Commander Yacoub Al Darisser will be coldly murdered by the men of Idriss Deby between 1994 and 1996.
– October 1996, arrest of Colonel Mahamat Fadil (DG of National Security) and Captain Wileda Nourri (Aide de camp to President Hissein Habré) by the Nigerien police and delivered to Idriss Deby who dispatched the presidential plane to fetch the refugees . Despite protests from the UNHCR, the Nigerien Human Rights League and the press, no news from these two officers.
– July 1997, assassination of Moussa Bachar Houno, CEMGA, in Paris, France. The circumstances of the accident being troubled, soldiers close to the deceased manage to divert the procession to a house not far from the airport while Deby was waiting in the place of independence for military honors. The body of the deceased was wrapped in a long, thick white band making it virtually impossible to see if the body had bullet holes. The imam of the great mosque of N’djamena, Colonel Hassan Hissein, mobilized his entire team to stop the macabre scene.
– October 1998, Youssouf Togoïmi ex-minister of defense opposed President Idriss Déby, retired to Tibesti and created the MDJT (Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad).
– December 21, 1999, faced with the refusal of the ruling clan president to initiate a frank dialogue with the Chadians, thirteen politico-military movements and political parties created the CMAP (Coordination of armed and political movements) whose objective is to overthrow regime in place.
– April 21, 2002, assassination of Dr. Mahamat Guetti, former director general of Asecna in Chad (15 years) and president of the PDA (African Democratic Party). Mr. Guetti jumped on a mine placed between two polling stations. The announcement of the candidacy of Mr. Guetti’s party in the legislative elections in the department of Borkou was received like a cold shower by the MPS (Idriss Deby’s party) which did everything to debauch the candidates of this party in Kouba Olanga , Faya, and Borkou.
– September 22, 2002, assassination of Youssouf Togoïmi (Attorney General, Minister of Justice, Minister of Defense, Minister of the Interior) head of the MDJT, a rebel movement in northern Chad. His vehicle hit a probably remote-controlled mine. Evacuated to Tripoli in Libya for leg care, Youssouf Togoïmi regained his health and was following kinesis therapy sessions when his death was announced. Much dreaded, Idriss Deby and his clan let their joy explode. However, Libya has so far refused to return Youssouf Togoïmi’s body to the family.
– May 16, 2003, assassination of Dr. Cheikh Ibn Oumar, Sudanese businessman and his driver in N’djaména around 11 am. The man had invested nearly 40 billion CFA francs for the exploitation of oil from Rig-Rig. Already not to the taste of French-African circles, Deby, furious at the rise of the FUC, will create the rebellion in Darfur and take control of the Sheikh’s affairs. The latter’s “assassins” will be arrested and tried in a trial that lasted 5 days where the accused could not even speak because their tongues were opened by blades of the evening, not to mention the beating.
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